Imam Mahdi

Short Biography of Imam Hossein AS

  Imam Hossein AS was the second son of Imam Ali AS and Hadhrat Fatima AS. He was born in Medina, on 3rd of Sha’ban of 3rd year of Hijri (22nd of January, 625). He was 6 months and 10 days younger than his older brother, Imam Hasan AS. He lived 7 years with his grandfather, Prophet Muhammad PBUH. He then lived 30 years with his father, Imam Ali AS, and 10 years afterwards with his older brother, Imam Hasan AS, and became Imam in 50th year of Hijri after his brother’s murder.

  His Imamat coincided with the reign of Mo’aviyeh, with whom Imam Hasan AS had signed a peace treaty. Imam Hossein also continued complying with the conditions of the treaty. The disagreements started from the time Mo’aviyeh acted against the treaty and assigned a successor, his son, Yazid, and tried to get approvals of everybody including Imam Hossein AS. Mo’aviyeh, himself, was the first to officially acknowledge Yazid’s rulership. With Mo’aviyeh’s death in 60th of hijri, Yazid became the new ruler. He then ordered Medina’s ruler to collect signatures of approval from all the prominent leaders and people in Medina, and to start from Quraysh, and Imam Hossein AS. When the ruler of Medina sent for Imam Hossein’s approval, Imam answered: “we are the progeny of the Prophet and the repository of his prophecy, and Yazid is a murderer, lewd, and a villain. The like of me will not shake hands with the like of him.”

  Maoudi also says, Yazid was a boon. He kept birds, dogs, monkeys, and cheetahs. He drank a lot, and allowed drinking, dancing and frivolity to be practiced publicly. His behavior towards his citizens was described as: “Pharaoh’s treatment with people was more lenient than him and he was more just towards them.”

  Imam Hossein, after seeing the turbulent condition of Medina, left there on the last two days of Rajab and headed towards Mecca. Imam describes in his will to his brother Mohammad bin Hanife, his aim in leaving Medina as: “the truth is that I did not leave Medina because of its corruption, but in order to revive my grandfather’s religion. I will command towards righteousness and prohibit from wrong doing and act upon my father and grandfather’s tradition.” Imam Hossein AS entered Mecca in 3rd of Sha’ban.

  When citizens of Kufa learned about Mo’aviyeh’s death, and Imam Hussein’s disapproval of Yazid, they signed letters in support of Imam Hossein AS and invited Imam Hossein to Kufah. They wrote: “We are waiting for you, and will not sign any agreements with anyone else, except you, and will not attend Namaz-e-Jomeh under anyone else’s Imamat except you.”

  Imam Hossein AS in response to their letters sent Moslem, son of Aqil, in the 15th of Ramadhan to Kufa to check out if the requests had been true and people indeed were asking for Imam’s attendance and to inform him, so that if their intentions had been real , Imam Hossein AS would also join him.

  Moslem arrived at Kufa 20 days later. When his arrival was learned, about 12 thousand people came to welcome him and promise their allegiance. Moslem informed Imam Hossein of people’s reception and affirmation, and invited him to join him in Kufa if he willed so. The news of Kufa reached Yazid. Yazid displaced the ruler of Kufa, No’man-ibn-Bashir, with Obeydullah-ibn-Ziad and commanded him to kill Moslem. On the other hand, he hired assassins to kill Imam Hossein AS in Mecca.

  When Imam Hossein AS learned about Yazid’s intentions, he left Mecca before finishing his pilgrimage to prevent any harms to Ka’ba and the Islamic tradition of Haj and moved towards Iraq.

Obeydullah killed Moslem and his host Hani-ibn-Orveh in Kufa with cruelty, and since he knew Imam Hossein AS was heading towards Kufa, he sent an army led by Hor-ibn-Yazid Riyahi to stop him before reaching Kufa and ordered him to stop and surround him and his league in a desert with no water and no place to hide, and Hor stopped Imam Hossein AS in a placed called Karbala. The next day Omar-ibn-Sa’ad reached Karbala with 4 thousand soldiers.

Hor conscience-stricken with what he had done to Imam Hossein repented and joined Imam Hossein’s league. Omar three days prior to Ashura (10th of Moharram) set 500 soldiers to guard Forat River and to prevent Imam Hossein’s access to water. On 9th of Moharram (Tasoo’a) Omar’s army closed around Imam Hossein’s small league, ensuring that no one could join his army anymore. In the evening of the same day the enemy intended to start the battle, but Imam Hossein sent his brother Abbas bin Ali to negotiate with them to postpone the battle to the next day.

  On the 10th day of Moharram (Ashura) Omar with 30 thousand soldiers started the battle against Imam Hossein AS with a league of 72 men. When all the Ashab (soldiers who weren’t blood relatives) were martyred, Imam Hossein’s family entered the battlefield, the first of whom had been Ali Akbar (the elder Ali), Imam Hossein’s eldest son and the most resembling living person to the deceased Prophet Muhammad PBUH. Ali Akbar’s resemblance to the prophet had been so great that many of the soldiers in the enemy’s army stopped fighting, frightened that the Prophet had been resurrected. Following the cruel murder and mutilation of Ali Akbar, the rest of Imam Hossein’s family were also cruelly slayed. The enemy did not even show mercy to Imam Hossein’s six-months-old infant, Ali Asghar and killed the baby by shooting an arrow into his throat. Finally when no man was left alive, and Imam Hossein was alone, he went to battle. After a great fight, the army surrounded him, shooting him with arrows and throwing stones at him, till not a single spot left unharmed in his body. When Imam finally hit the ground, Shimr, God’s curse be on him, beheaded Imam and Omar commanded a group of his army to trample Imam’s body with their horses.

For more information on the life of Imam Hossein AS, please refer to my other website.

I set Hossein the deposit of my revelation, destined for him an immense martyrdom, and ended his life with blessings. Therefore he is the human ever martyred and has the highest rank among all martyrs.
Kamal-e-din page 310

Prophet Mohammad (PBUH):
Hossein is of me. He is my son and the best human after his brother Hasan. He is the imam of Muslims and the leader of believers, the heir of God on earth, and the rescuer of those in need, and God’s evidence on humans. He is the master of the youths of heaven and the gate to the salvation of humans. His word is my word and his command is my command. Anybody who follows him, has followed me, and anybody who disobeys him has disobeyed me.
Amali Sadooq p 101

Imam Hossein AS:
I entered upon Prophet Mohammad PBUH and Obay-bin-ka’ab was also sitting with him. Prophet told me: “Greetings to you oh Aba-Abdellah, the adornment of heavens and earth!” Obay told prophet: “How is it possible that any other person than you could be the adornment of heavens and earth?” Prophet answered: “Obay, I swear to God who chose me as His prophet, Hossein, son of Ali, is more exalted in heavens than on earth. Indeed on the right of side of heavens God has written: Hossein is the guiding torch and the salvation ship.”
Oyoun pages 59-60

Prophet Mohammad PBUH:
The truth is that there is a hidden bond between Hossein and his believers’ hearts.

Prophet Mohammad PBUH:
Anyone who wishes to look upon the best and the most favored creature in heavens and earth look upon Hossein.

Imam Baqer AS:
Hossein was walking towards Prophet Mohammad PBUH. Prophet then hugged him and said: “the truth is that as the result of Hossein’s martyrdom there will be pain and flame in his followers’ hearts than will never soothe.” Then Imam Baqer said, “I wish I could sacrifice myself for that slain of tears!” those present asked him, “what does it mean slain of tears?” Imam answered: “Hossein is the one whom everybody will shed tears for when hearing about him.”

Imam Reza AS:
“Indeed Moharram had been the month in which war and killing had been forbidden in it since old times (before the prophet of Islam). But they allowed for shedding our blood, and disrespected us and captivated our women and children, and burned down our houses, and ransacked our property, and disrespected prophet Mohammad PBUH.”
He then continued:
“when Moharram arrived, my father no more smiled. Sorrow and despair covered his face till the tenth day. And on the tenth day, he wailed and moaned a lot saying, today is the day that they slaughtered Hossein AS.”

Abdollah-bin-Fazl-Hashemi narrates:
I asked Imam Sadeq AS, “why is it that Ashura is the day of extreme lamenting and wailing, but the days on which prophet himself, Fatemeh, his daughter, Ali, his son-in-law, and Hasan his grandson, were killed are not lamented as much?”
Imam replied:
“because Hossein’s tragedy is more immense than those others, because the family of the cloak, who were the dearest to God among all humans had been this five. When prophet Mohammad PBUH deceased, Ali AS , Fatemeh, Hasan and Hossein, were the remainders on earth, soothing and helping people; when Fatemeh AS rest in peace, Ali, Hasan and Hossein, were still among people, mollifying the loss, when Ali AS ceased to exist, Hasan and Hossein were still the remaining hope for the believers, and when Hasan AS left this world, Hossein was still there to compensate for his absence and pain. But when Hossein died, no one was left from the family of the cloak to help with the calamity and despair."

Imam Reza AS:
Anyone who leaves aside worldly deeds on the day of Ashura, God will satisfy his needs in this world and the world to come. And anyone who laments on the day of Ashura, God will cheer him up on the hereafter and will meet us in the heavens. Anybody who assumes Ashura as the day of fortune and strives in earning earthly material, that fortune will not profit him, and he will be resurrected with Yazid and Obaydullah-bin-Ziad in the hereafter and will reside in the lowest ranks of hell.

Imam Reza AS:
If you will to meet us in the hereafter and reside next to us in heavens, curse the murderers of Hossein.

Davoud Raqi says:
I was sitting with Imam Sadeq AS and he asked for water. When he drank the water, his eyes filled with tears and said, “Curse be to the murderers of Hossein! Remembering Hossein is sorrowful. Indeed I have never drunk water, unless I have remembered Hossein. It is true that anyone who drinks water and curses Hossein’s murderers, God will give him hundred thousand bounties and forgive of him hundred thousand sins and elevate his rank in heavens hundred thousand time, and will resurrect him in the hereafter happy and blissful.”

Imam Reza AS:
Anybody who remembers our tragedy and moans for it and makes others moan as well, his eyes will not be tearful on the day that all the eyes are tearful. Anybody’s heart who sits in a gathering that recite our tragic events, will not die on the day that all the hearts die.


Mo'aviyeh bin Abu Sofyan


Yazid bin Mo'aviyeh


Moslem bin Aqil


Obeydullah bin Ziyad


Hor Bin Yazid Riyahi


Ali Akbar - The Eldest Ali


Ali Asghar - The Youngest Ali


Omar bin Sa'ad