Short Biography of Imam Hasan AS
Imam Hasan was the first child of Imam Ali AS and Hazrat Fatemeh AS. He was born in Medina on 15th of Ramadhan of the third year of hijri. He was also known as Mojtaba and also entitled as the generous one of Prophet Muhammad's progeny. He spent seven years with Prophet Muhammad PBUH and thirty years with his father Imam Ali AS.
He became the caliph in the 40th year of Hijri, after his father’s death, and with the insistence of Muslims. But since Bani-Umayyah (the sons of Umayyah) had always felt hatred towards the Bani-Hashem (the sons of Hashem), they tried their best to deceive Muslims into dismissing him from power. Mo’aviyeh sent spies to every city to negatively publicize against Imam Hasan and himself prepared his troops for starting a war against Imam Hasan in Iraq.
Imam Hasan AS forewarned Mo’aviyeh of his mischievous plans; then invited Muslims to defend against the infidels’ troops.
In the battlefield, Mo’aviyeh deceived Imam Hasan’s army by promising them position and wealth in the new caliphate under his own leadership, and passed around the rumor that Imam Hasan has peaced out. Many surrendered and joined Mo’aviyeh’s army. Treason and disloyalty even penetrated into Imam’s closest companies: they tore out his tent and garment, took away the carpet under his foot, and stabbed him with a knife.
After witnessing this treachery and the weakness among Muslims, Imam Hasan found the only way to save Islam from total distinction, was to accept peace with Mo’aviyeh. Therefore, to save the true Shiites who were in minority and to preserve the true Islam from extinction by his death, he accepted peace on certain conditions and signed a treaty on 25th Rabi-ol-Aval, 41 hijri (28th July 661). Some of the key points of this treaty were:
- Mo’aviyeh shall not label himself amir-ol-mo’menin or the king of all the believers;
- No one should curse Imam Ali AS henceforth;
- Lives, properties and the household of Shiites should be safe;
- Shiites’ rights should be observed;
- Mo’aviyeh should not assign a successor himself.
Therefore, Imam Hasan ceased anarchy and intrigue against Shiites. This treaty defined at its best the evil and the right parties and their dispositions.
Afterwards Imam Hasan AS left Kufa and returned to Medina and continued preaching and teaching Islamic rules and science to the Muslims. Meanwhile, Mo’aviyeh violated the conditions of the treaty, with the hope of finding the right excuse to murder Imam Hasan AS. Mo’aviyeh poisoned Imam Hasan AS four times, the last by which Imam was murdered, was done by Imam Hasan’s own wife, Ja’deh daughter of Sheyth.
Jonadeh narrates that at the time of being poisoned I visited Imam Hasan AS and in front of him was a large bowl. As a result of that poison, Imam kept coughing and each time he vomited blood clots into the bowl. I asked him, “why don’t you heal yourself?” and he replied, “How can I heal death?”
Imam Hasan died on the year 50 hijri when he was 47 years old. After saying prayers to his dead body, his friends and family carried his body to Prophet Muhammad's grave, to bury him next to his grandfather. But when Bani-Umayyah learned about such decision and the crowd that had gathered, prevented them from fulfilling their intention. They fired at Imam Hasan’s body and it is narrated that later on 70 arrows were taken out of his body. Imam Hossein AS, his brother and successor, obeying Imam Hasan’s will did not start a fight with the infidels and carried the body to a place called Baqi’ and buried Imam Hasan there.