Short Biography of Hadhrat Fatemeh AS
Fatemeh (Fatima in Latin) AS was Prophet Muhammad PBUH and Khadijeh’s child. Imam Sadeq AS has affirmed that she was born on 20th of Jamadi-o-Sani of the 5th year after Be’sat or 19th of November 614.
The first 8 years of her life was spent in Mecca. She endured lots of misfortunes in these years as a result of Quraysh’s plottings against Prophet Muhammad PBUH. She lost her mother when she was 5 years old. She left Mecca when she had been 8 years old and headed towards Medina with his father.
Fatemeh AS had many suitors due to her position as the daughter of the Prophet and her own virtues. Omar and Abu-bakr were among those suitors, but Prophet Muhammad PBUH accepted none of them, till Ali AS asked prophet for his daughter’s hand and prophet accepted.
Prophet later told Ali AS, “The suitors of Fatemeh complained to me later on that you rejected us when we proposed to you for marriage, but you preferred Ali and answered to him.” I told them, “indeed it was not me who rejected you or who accepted Ali, God had ordered me by Gabriel to accept only Ali AS for marriage. Gabriel then told me: “O Mohammad! God says, “If I had not created Ali, there would have been no equals on earth for your daughter, Fatemeh, from Adam to the last of humans.””
The marriage ceremony was held on the 2nd year of Hijri. Their first child, Hasan was born on the third year of Hijri. In these years, the Uhud Battle occurred between Muslims and infidels. Muslims were harshly wounded because a group of the troops disobeyed prophet. Hamzeh, prophet’s uncle and one of the bravest supporter was killed in this battle, and Hind (Abu-Sofyan’s wife) ate his liver instantly on the battle field. Fatemeh and a group of other women rushed to the field afterwards to mend the wounded and give water and food to those in need. When Fatemeh saw his father and the wounds he had taken, she hugged him hard and cried heavily. In the next three days, Fatemeh would visit Ohod’s martyrs’ graves and wailed and prayed for them.
Whenever, prophet wanted to leave for a place, Fatemeh was the last person he saw, and separated from; and whenever he returned back, Fatemeh was the first he entered upon to see.
Ali AS also said, whenever I came home after a hard day, looking upon Zahra’s face alleviated all the pains.
After her father’s death, her life became even more turbulent. She was so hardly affected by her father’s death and bemoaned so much her death that people told her to leave the city and go to the outskirts to lament her father, because her mourning bothered them.
After prophet’s death, while still his body was not buried, a group of Muslims led by Abu-Bakr and Omar set up a greeting in a place called Saghifeh, taking advantage of Ali’s absence, who was busy burying prophet, and set Abu-Bakr as the next caliphate and heir to prophet. Fatemeh was even more affected now, seeing that in addition to her father’s decease, Islam was starting to its diminish as well. Therefore, she used every occasion she found to remind people of his father’s religion and teachings, and to remind them that Ali AS had been the sole heir, whom prophet had introduced and affirmed in his lifetime.
After the Saghifeh meeting, Bani Omayyeh (Abubakr, Omar and the rest of them) increased pressure against Ali AS and Prophet’s family to get Ali’s affirmation and approval for the new caliphate, but were rejected. In their final attempt, they burned down Ali and Fatemeh’s house in order to threaten Ali AS to get out and sign the agreement. But Fatemeh AS who wanted to defend her father’s religion and Islam from total ruin resisted against them, and when she was standing behind the door, preaching the infidels and inviting them to repent, Ghonfoz’s (Omar’s soldier) kick on the door caused the door to slam against Fatemeh’s body and injuring her. The injuries were so severe that the then-pregnant Fatemeh lost her child, and was badly bruised, and died a few days afterwards. Historians and Islamic scholars doubted the exact time of her death. Some affirmed it to be on 2nd of Jamadi-i-Sani 11 hijri (year 632 of the Gregorian calendar); others believed it to be on 13th of Jamadi-ol-Avval. So Hadhrat Fatemeh AS died about two months after her father.
AbuBakr on the final days of his life regretted what he had done to Fatemeh AS and said, “I regret for three things I have done in this world: I wish I had not disrespected Fatemeh and had not burned and broken the door of her house; I wish on the Saghifeh meeting, I had not accepted caliphate and had transferred it to Omar instead; and I wish I had imprisoned or freed Faja’h instead of burning him.”
In his first days of becoming a caliph, AbuBakr usurped Fadak, which was a garden that prophet had given as a present in his lifetime to Fatemeh. AbuBakr usurped the property, by falsely preaching that prophets do not have heirs. Fatemeh AS gave lots of speeches among Muslims trying to make Muslims aware of the threats and corruptions that were happening to Islam. In one of her speeches, in which she defended her right to Fadak, she accosted AbuBakr, saying; “what an evil have you done. Are you intentionally trying to eradicate Quran and its traditions? Haven’t you read in Quran where it says: “and Solomon inherited from David.””
In the meantime, and after Fatemeh’s murder, Ali AS could not interfere, and could not use his military advantages, because those who had usurped prophet’s properties and positions, were aiming at enraging Ali AS to the extent that he would rise against them in battle, so that they could kill him and the rest of the few true Muslims left. Ali AS, knowing their intentions remained silent after the Umayyahs betrayed prophet and killed his daughter, to protect Islam.
On her final days, Fatemeh, asked her servant and aid, Asma, to prepare for her a coffin, in order to prevent her body be seen by anyone. Fatemeh AS was the first whose body was carried inside a coffin. She also asked Ali AS to bury her body at night and secretly, so that nobody would know about her grave, so that nobody might be able to disrespect her body after her death. So when she died, Ali AS, his sons and a few of the true Muslim friends burned Fatemeh AS at night and secretly and the location of her grave is still unknown to the world.
Fatemeh AS had two sons, Hasan and Hossein, and two daughters, Zeinab and Ome-kolsoom.